AR400 and AR500 Explained
Some 4,000 years ago, steel made its first appearance. Over the centuries, various cultures improved upon the original formula, eventually developing the types of steel used today. This alloy has established its place in virtually every industry imaginable and has endless uses. While numerous types of steel are on the market, some aren’t recommended for certain applications.
In many instances, abrasion-resistant steel plate is the best choice. Though there are variations of this type of material as well, AR400 and AR500 are the most commonly used. We’re going to delve into both of these steel plate options to further explain their similarities, differences, and potential uses.
What Is Abrasion-Resistant Steel?
Steel is the prime choice for a long list of applications because of its many useful qualities. It’s strong, durable, long lasting, resistant to corrosion, versatile, cost effective, and even recyclable. That said, different types of steel have their own strong suits.
As the name indicates, abrasion-resistant steel plate has an uncanny ability to withstand ongoing rubbing, scraping, grating, and other wear that might weaken other variations of steel. It gets its abrasion resistance from carbon and other elements that are added during its formation as well as specialized processing strategies.
Both factors detract from the strength of steel plate to an extent but make it less vulnerable to wear. They also ramp up its malleability and certain other traits depending on whether it’s AR 400 or AR 500 steel. This makes it less than ideal for building structures and some other uses while rendering it perfect for other purposes, which we’ll discuss further shortly.
What Makes AR Steel Plate So Resistant to Abrasion?
While the chemical composition of AR steel helps to fortify its sought-after qualities, that’s only part of the bigger picture. It’s also through-hardened. That means it’s hardened throughout rather than only being reinforced on the surface as some types of steel plate are. This comes from quenching and tempering.
During the quenching phase, steel plate is heated to 1,500 degrees or so. Then, it’s immersed in water to cool it quickly. This causes crystals to form within the steel, making it harder. From there, it’s tempered, or heated to around 500 degrees, and allowed to cool slowly and naturally. This second round of heating breaks down the crystals in the metal, but they reform during the slow cooling stage.
How Is AR Steel Plate Rated?
Different rating systems apply to steel. For AR steel plate, the main grading system is the Brinell Hardness Test. Plates are given a Brinell Hardness Number, or BHN, based on their level of hardness. In the case of AR400 steel plate, 400 is the plate’s nominal hardness, and it has a hardness range of 360 to 440. For AR500 steel plate, the nominal harness is 500, and its range is 460 to 544. AR450 and AR600 steel plates are also available, but they’re a bit less common.
Differences between AR400 and AR500 Steel Plate
Many people may think that a 100-point spread wouldn’t make much of a difference in the inherent qualities of steel plates. In truth, AR400 and AR500 steel plates are quite different. As alluded to earlier, the differences come from their alloy components and the specific quenching and tempering processes used in their creation.
For AR400, chromium is added to improve the steel plates’ hardness and resistance to corrosion. Molybdenum increases hardness as well, but it also helps prevent the steel from becoming too brittle to work with after being tempered. AR400 steel plate has a yield strength of 155,000 PSI and a tensile strength of 180,000 PSI.
What is AR500 steel plate made of? Aside from the typical metals used to form steel, manganese is added to the mix to create this type steel plate. This increases its strength and pliability though it’s less malleable than AR400. It holds up well against wear, impacts, and constant use and can be welded. AR500 has a yield strength of 200,000 PSI and a tensile strength of 225,000 PSI.
Uses for AR400 and AR500 Steel
Both types of steel plate have several uses, and they’re difficult to wear out even when subjected to continual abuse. Overall, AR steel plates are chosen for projects in which strength is important but not as crucial as resistance to friction, impacts, and other hazards. They’re also commonly used in situations where a distinct balance between hardness and brittleness is needed.
For projects that require more formability, AR400 is most likely the better option. It’s not as hard as AR500, so it’s not as difficult to bend and shape. If your project needs to withstand excessive impacts; sliding across hard, rough surfaces; and other similar hazards, AR500 will serve you well.
AR400 steel plate is often used for digging, scraping, and mining equipment as well as many other types of heavy machinery. It’s also used in steel mills, pulp and paper production facilities, and handling of bulk dry goods among many other applications. It may also be used for dump truck and storage bin liners, trailer bodies, and various automotive components.
Some of the common uses for AR500 steel plate overlap those of AR400. Still, it offers greater longevity and durability than its softer counterpart. It’s used for construction machinery, concrete handling equipment, and plows to name a few possibilities. It’s also used for body armor, targets, and other comparable applications because the AR500 steel caliber rating is higher than that of AR400.
In a Few Words
Steel is used in countless ways, including constructing buildings and bridges, building ships, manufacturing vehicles and appliances, fabricating tools, and creating heavy machinery. Abrasion-resistant steel plate isn’t recommended for building high-rises, bridges, and other structures that need to bear extremely heavy loads. Still, it certainly has its own lengthy list of purposes.
Though several types of steel plate are available, AR400 and AR500 are the most widely used. They offer increased impact resistance, longevity, and versatility for the many situations in which those traits are needed more so than higher levels of strength. Keep all this information in mind, and don’t hesitate to reach out for further assistance with choosing the right option for your upcoming project.
Different Types and Grades of Bolts and Their Uses
Several considerations come into play when you’re planning and carrying out a project. You have to determine what you’ll be using the finished product for, the correct dimensions of the structure or item you’re building, how to approach the project, and which materials to use to name a few of the main considerations. While the figures, your skills, and the materials will factor into how sturdy and reliable the end results are, they’re only as good as the bolts you use to put everything together.
Taking a Closer Look at Bolts
Before diving into the nuts and bolts of the matter, it’s important to cover just what bolts are. By definition, they’re fasteners with threaded shafts. Once they’re inserted into the materials they’ll hold together, a nut is threaded onto the shaft to provide sturdiness and prevent movement. Washers are sometimes added to the mix to increase stability as well.
Bolts shouldn’t be confused with screws, which create their own holes and don’t require nuts or washers. When comparing the two, bolts inevitably give you more strength and resistance to damage. Numerous types and sizes of bolts are available, each of which has its own benefits and applications.
Common Bolt Materials
Bolts can be made of a range of materials, including aluminum, brass, bronze, steel alloys, and stainless steel. Not all of them work well in every situation. Some just don’t have all the qualities you need for certain applications.
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Aluminum bolts are lightweight, aesthetically pleasing options that provide ample corrosion resistance under some circumstances. That said, this material can corrode when it’s paired with certain other materials.
Other metals are often added to aluminum to increase bolts’ strength and resistance to extreme temperatures. Bolts made of aluminum aren’t the strongest choices, but they’ll hold up in lightweight applications.
Made by combining copper and zinc, brass is a beautiful metal for bolts and other types of hardware. It’s resistant to corrosion and offers electrical conductivity, but it’s fairly soft. That means it doesn’t provide much in the way of tensile strength.
Bronze is composed of copper with tin and silicon added to the mix. Bronze bolts are often used in applications where they’ll be exposed to salt water or spray because of their superior corrosion resistance. Though bronze is stronger than brass, it’s still not the prime choice for most heavy-duty uses.
Steel and Steel Alloys
Steel is one of the most popular and versatile materials for bolts. It’s strong, durable, corrosion-resistant, and capable of holding up to extreme conditions. Steel bolts are often treated or coated to enhance their positive qualities. You might find them in galvanized or zinc- or chrome-plated varieties. An array of steel alloy bolts is also available for various purposes.
Made of low-carbon steel and chromium, stainless steel gives you strength, durability, corrosion resistance, and many other highly sought-after qualities. Though most stainless alloys can’t be heat-treated, some can be hardened to further boost their tensile strength and endurance. Stainless steel bolts are used in a number of applications.
Consider those points when deciding which types of bolts will work best for your project. While each material offers corrosion resistance and a certain amount of strength, aluminum, brass, and bronze are only appropriate for relatively lightweight applications. Stainless steel is more versatile, and steel bolts are likely to serve you well in virtually any situation.
Covering the Different Grades of Bolts
Now that we’ve gone over the basics of bolts and the different materials they may be made of, let’s move along to the various grades of bolts on the market. Three distinct grading systems are used for bolts: SAE, Metric, and ASTM. Higher grades can withstand greater force and weight, and higher numbers translate to higher grades.
SAE Grading System
The SAE grading system was developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers. Several grades are distinguished in this system, but the three most common are 2, 5, and 8. You can determine the grade by looking at the head of the bolt.
If an SAE bolt has no markings on its head, it’s a grade 2, meaning it has a tensile strength of about 60,000 pounds per square inch. This is your average hardware bolt.
Grade 5 bolts are set apart with 3 raised marks on their heads. They’re stronger than grade 2 bolts and can withstand about 100,000 PSI of force. These bolts are often used in the automotive field.
Grade 8 bolts are heat-treated and have a tensile strength of 150,000 PSI. They’re best for heavy loads and high stress. They have 6 raised marks on their heads. Essentially, you count the raised marks on the heads of SAE bolts and add 2 to get their grades.
Metric Grading System
Metric bolts have two numbers on their heads separated by a decimal point, and they’re graded according to the International Standards Organization, or ISO. Their numbers represent their property class. The number on the left side of the decimal point is the load strength whereas the one on the right tells you the spread between the breaking and bending loads. You’ll see certain common classes of bolts in the metric grading system.
Steel metric bolts rated 8.8 are made of medium carbon steel that has been quenched and tempered. Those measuring less than 16 millimeters are rated for a proof load of 580 MPa with a minimum yield strength of 640 MPa and a minimum tensile strength of 800 MPa. These types of bolts ranging from 16 to 72 millimeters have a proof load of 600 MPa, a minimum yield strength of 660 MPa, and a minimum tensile strength of 830 MPa.
If you see a steel bolt with 10.9 on its head, it’s made of a quenched and tempered steel alloy. Bolts in this category range from 5 to 100 millimeters and will withstand a maximum tensile force of 830 MPa. They have a minimum yield strength of 940 MPa and a minimum tensile strength of 1,040 MPa.
Class 12.9 steel bolts range in size from 1.6 to 100 millimeters and stand up to a proof load of 970 MPa. Their minimum yield strength is 1,100 MPa, and their minimum tensile strength is 1,220 MPa. They’re heavier-duty bolts and useful for many purposes.
ASTM Grading System
ASTM grades were developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials. They’re characterized by the letter A followed by a series of 3 numbers. They’re comparable to SAE bolts. An A325 bolt offers close to the same properties as an SAE grade 5. An A490 corresponds to an SAE grade 8 bolt. The ASTM equivalent of a grade 2 SAE bolt would be A307.
Keep in mind, these are the more widespread bolt grades. Others are available as well. As mentioned, higher numbers indicate higher strength regardless of the grading system used. Now, with general bolt grades explained, we can focus specifically on stainless steel bolts.
Covering Common Stainless Steel Bolt Grades
Stainless steel bolts are often chosen because of their strength, longevity, and corrosion-resistant nature among other strong suits. If they happen to obtain surface damage, those nicks and scratches won’t compromise the qualities of the metal. Various types of stainless steel are available, and they have different grade markings than other types of bolts.
Austenitic stainless steel contains 15 to 20 percent chromium and 5 to 19 percent nickel. Bolts made of this type of stainless steel offer the highest level of corrosion resistance. They have a tensile strength of 80,000 to 150,000 PSI. Austenitic stainless steel bolt grades include 302, 303, 304, 304L, 316, 320, 347, and 348.
Martensitic stainless steel is magnetic but doesn’t weld very well. It offers an intrinsic tensile strength of 180,000 to 250,000 PSI and, unlike some other types of stainless, can be heat-treated for further reinforcement. Common bolt grades in this type of stainless steel are 410, 416, 420, and 431.
Consisting of 15 to 18 percent chromium, ferritic stainless steel has a tensile strength of 65,000 to 87,000 PSI but can’t be heat-treated or welded. Though ferritic stainless steel bolts can resist corrosion, they’re not recommended for applications where they’re likely to be exposed to highly corrosive substances. Popular stainless steel bolts in this category include 430 and 430F.
Wrapping Things Up
In a nutshell, numerous types and grades of bolts are at your disposal. While aluminum, brass, and bronze are great for aesthetic appeal and lightweight applications, steel and stainless steel are best for heavy-duty loads. Consider the grades of the metal you’re going to use when choosing the right bolts for your project as well.
How Many Screws Will I Need for my Metal Roof?
Are you considering replacing your asphalt roof with metal roofing instead? More and more homeowners, contractors, and commercial businesses are starting to turn to metal for their roofing needs and there’s plenty of reasons why it’s such a popular choice.
Metal roofing is long-lasting, durable, resistant to the elements, and far more energy-efficient than asphalt roofing. However, as with any style of roofing you need fasteners to install it properly and avoid leaks and constant upkeep. People often get stuck trying to determine how many fasteners they need to purchase and what types to get. This article will explain the different types of metal roofing, its benefits, how many fasteners you need, and the correct spacing and installation.
How to Determine the Correct Fastener Spacing & Installation
When you want to determine the exact placement and screw spacing for metal roofing there is several factors to consider. Correctly installing your metal roof begins with using the correct tools, and that means using a screw gun and placing the screws properly.
You should attach the screws for metal roofing at both sides of the ribs on both eaves and anywhere the panels overlap. It is recommended to place the screws on the inside flat of the panel--not on the top of the rib. If you attach it on the top of the rib it can prevent a tight seal from forming and could cause leaks.
Attaching the screw on the rib could also cause it to tilt, stretching the screw hole until it’s bigger than the washer hole which then breaks the seal. Rib placement could also cause the screw to pull out of the roof if the wind is high or the conditions extreme. That’s why it’s better to fasten the screw on the inside flat area where it will easily and securely fasten to the panel. But how many screws do you need exactly?
How Many Screws Will You Need: Two Easy Formulas
Even if you are a beginner at roof installation if you can use a calculator, then you can easily determine how many screws for metal roofing your project will require. There are two easy formulas to remember when determining the amount of screws you should purchase:
Advantages of Using Screws Instead of Nails for Your Metal Roofing Project
Using screws instead of nails as a fastener when installing a metal roof offers several benefits. For starters, screws just plain have better holding power than nails. After a few years, nails can actually work themselves loose due to the roof contracting and expanding with the weather. Screws will never work themselves loose because of their thread patterns. They also will not bend when put under intense heat like a nail does.
Not only are screws stronger, but they also stay put better due to their threads and can be easily reversed out and replaced if necessary. When they’re installed using a screw gun, screws are much faster than hammering a nail and actually provide better, more accurate control over placement.
Different Types of Metal Roofing
If you are thinking about replacing your roof and installing a metal one instead then one of the first decisions you will make is which type of metal to use. Each type has its own different aesthetic and its own different advantages. The different types of metal roofing include:
Benefits of Installing Metal Roofing
Businesses and homeowners who install metal roofing choose it for a reason! There are a variety of advantages and benefits to having metal roofing as opposed to asphalt or any other kind of roofing.
What Other Materials Will You Need?
Before you start installing your metal roof, you want to make sure you have a few other products and tools that you’ll need to properly complete everything. Here are a few different products recommended when using screws for metal roofing, including:
Final Thoughts on Metal Roofing and Determining Which Materials You Will Need
Metal roofing is an excellent option for just about any roofing project you may come across, whether it’s for a house, shed, or even a commercial application. Screws are usually the best fastener to use when installing a roof no matter what type of metal or application. As long as you follow the proper installation instructions and place the screws on the flat of the panel, you will end up with a long lasting, virtually leak-proof and environmentally sustainable roof that can also save you money on your energy bills. It’s no wonder so many homeowners are making the switch from asphalt to metal!
WHEN IS THE BEST TIME OF YEAR TO REPLACE THE ROOF?